I recently wrote about the benefits both students and teachers derive when a lesson has been designed using a framework such as the ABCD model, for writing effective lesson objectives.
Planning lessons should involve thinking about the cognitive domains that a teacher wishes to engage the students in.
In introducing Bloom’s revised taxonomy to our lesson objectives, we appreciate that one or more domains can be integrated to enhance the learning experience for the student.
As a recap, these cognitive domains were as follows…
One of the best ways of using this taxonomy in the classroom is to think about them in terms of activities.
So, if I wished to enhance student learning by getting students to evaluate an argument, what activity might be best to introduce to them? The answers to questions like this are fundamental to building relevant student assessment, both formative and summative.
Okay, so without any further delay, here are a list of some possible activities that students might undertake to engage in the cognitive domain that is your focus area within your lesson plan.
Key domain words are also included with some classroom strategies appropriate to each domain.
Remember that the following ideas barely scratch the surface of the possibilities within each domain, so bear that in mind.
- Multiple-choice test
- Recount facts or statistics
- Recalling a process
- Listing Rules
- Stating procedures
Key words in this domain: arrange, define, describe, label, list, memorise, recognise, relate, reproduce, select, state.
Teaching tools: Alpha Ladder, Mnemonics & Acronyms, Pairs & RAS Alert, Silent Card Shuffle, KWHL, 3:2:1 RIQ, Rhymes, Music, Flash Cards, Y-Chart, Split Y-Chart, Transfer Booklet
- Explain or interpreting the meaning of something.
- Suggest possible ways to overcome an obstacle.
- Demonstrating proper reactions or solutions to a given issue.
- Create examples or metaphors to show understanding.
- Provide analogous examples from other areas of study.
Key words in this domain: explain, reiterate, reword, critique, classify, summarise, illustrate, translate, review, report, discuss, re-write, estimate, interpret, theorise, paraphrase, reference, example.
Teaching tools: Cause-Effect map, Concept Map, Metaphor, Y-Chart, Split Y-Chart, Silent Card Shuffle, Attribute Listing.
- Put a theory or idea into practice.
- Demonstrate how something works.
- Solve a problem.
- Manage an activity by applying learning.
Key words in this domain: use, apply, discover, manage, execute, solve, produce, implement, construct, change, prepare, conduct, perform, react, respond, role-play.
Teaching tools: Role Plays, Silent Card Shuffle, Attribute Listing, POE, Flow Chart.
- Conduct an experiment.
- Analyse data using graphs and charts.
- Investigate an issue an extract information.
- Identify processes, parts, concepts or functions from information.
- Discover values, effects, relationships in a narrative.
- Quantify needs or requirements within a given scenario.
Key words in this domain: analyse, break down, catalogue, compare, quantify, measure, test, examine, experiment, relate, graph, diagram, plot, extrapolate, value, divide.
Teaching tools: PCQ, PCQ Extension, Attribute Listing, Double Bubble Map, Decision Making Matrix, T-Chart, Fishbone Diagram, Y-Chart, Split Y-Chart, Icon Prompt, SWOT Analysis.
- Weigh up the effectiveness of potential solutions.
- Conduct a critical review of literature.
- Debate an issue that polarises opinion.
- Make judgements based on both quantitative and qualitative data.
- Argue for a local issue.
- Make recommendations to enhance a solution to a real life issue.
- Judge the effectiveness of political and military decisions from history.
Key words in this domain: review, justify, assess, present a case for, defend, report on, investigate, direct, appraise, argue, project-manage.
Teaching tools: PCQ Extension, Decision Making Matrix, Extent Barometer, Judge & Jury, Elimination Draw, Human Continuum.
- Develop procedures to meet potential issues.
- Design solutions.
- Combine two approaches.
- Integrate something without losing integrity.
- Effectively rearrange something.
- Create a proposal.
Key words in this domain: develop, plan, build, create, design, organise, revise, formulate, propose, establish, assemble, integrate, rearrange, modify.
Teaching tools: Round Robin, Y-Chart, Split Y-Chart, MAS, 1:4:P:C:R, Image Associated Ideas, Word association.
There are many vehicles for carrying these domains through to assessing student’s learning.
These include both formative and summative assessments.
Teachers might consider introducing a range of test types to cater for learning preferences.
Some examples include…
- Multiple Choice
- True False
- Short Answer/Response
- Concept Maps
- Extended writing